SFML is a framework that uses C++, this is the most sensible way of creating a game in C++. To learn the basics of C++ check out:
Otherwise you will have to code every aspect of your game, including the mundane tasks such as listening for key presses or drawing a Sprite to the screen.
Other options, instead of SFML could be:
- SDL (SDL2)
Both options would be more intensive and more difficult than SFML.